Secondary disasters caused by typhoons and their countermeasures

table of contents

Introduction Five impacts of typhoons

1. Heavy rains and floods

1-1 Flood damage
1-2 Landslides and landslides
1-3 Agricultural damage
1-4 Economic impact

2. Storm surge and coastal flooding

2-1 Damage to structures
2-2 Coastal erosion
2-3 Impact on life in coastal areas

3. Wind damage to buildings and structures

3-1 Danger of Fallen Trees and Flying Objects
3-2 Impact on traffic
3-3 Impact on power supply
3-4 Stagnant work and impact on the economy

Four. Landslide disaster landslide and collapse

4-1 Levee breach
4-2 Impact on roads and traffic
4-3 Damage to agricultural land and environment
4-4 Danger to human life

5. Impact on railway and air operations

5-1 Impact on Railway Operation
5-2 Line damage
5-3 Ensuring safety


A typhoon is a developed tropical cyclone with a central pressure of 980 hectopascals or higher and a maximum wind speed of 17 meters or more near the center.

Typhoons approach and make landfall in Japan most frequently from July to October. On average for 30 years (1991-2020), about 25 typhoons are generated annually, about 12 typhoons approach within 300 km from Japan, and about 3 make landfall in Japan. Japan is a region where typhoons pass frequently, and typhoons have various impacts on Japan. This article details the impact of typhoons on Japan and the measures that countries and regions should take.

Five impacts of typhoons

The following are secondary disasters caused by typhoons.

1. heavy rain and flood

1-1 Flood damage

Heavy rains caused by typhoons bring large amounts of rainwater to urban and rural low-lying areas. When rainfall exceeds the capacity of rivers and drainage systems, water can accumulate and flood roads and residential areas. This can damage homes and buildings, and affect traffic and livelihoods.

1-2 Landslides and landslides

Heavy rains caused by typhoons increase the risk of landslides and landslides in mountainous areas. In areas such as steep slopes and near rivers, a large amount of rainwater saturates the soil and causes ground instability. As a result, the earth and sand will flow out, and there is a risk that houses and roads will be buried.

1-3 Agricultural damage

Heavy rains caused by typhoons have a great impact on crops. When farmlands become flooded, crops become submerged, increasing the risk of root rot and death. In addition to direct rainwater damage to crops, agriculture is also affected by damage to farmland and facilities, and delays in harvesting.

1-4 Economic impact

The effects of heavy rains and floods can also have a significant economic impact. Traffic paralysis, power outages, damage to companies and business establishments, damage to agriculture and fisheries, etc. can cause major losses to local economies.

2. Storm surge and coastal flooding

Due to storm surges and swells caused by typhoons, seawater overflows levees and seawalls and floods coastal areas. Widespread flooding can occur in coastal lowlands and low-lying areas. This can damage homes, buildings, roads, farmland, etc.

2-1 Damage to structures

The forces caused by storm surges and swells can affect buildings and structures. Levees and seawalls may be damaged or destroyed, and buildings and facilities along the coast may be damaged.

2-2 Coastal erosion

High waves and swells from typhoons can cause coastline erosion. The force of waves can erode sandy beaches and coastal land, causing coastlines to recede. This has implications for coastal protection and the environment of coastal areas.

2-3 Impact on life in coastal areas

In coastal areas, seawater intrusion may cause salt damage to drinking water and farmland, and may affect fisheries. In addition, damage to facilities and tourism resources may occur in tourist areas and resort areas near the coast, which may affect the local economy.

3. Wind damage to buildings and structures

The strong winds of a typhoon can cause direct damage to buildings and structures. Roof tiles and sheets may scatter, and damage such as broken window glass may occur. Especially strong typhoons can cause collapse of buildings and damage to structures.

3-1 Danger of Fallen Trees and Flying Objects

Typhoon winds can knock down trees. Fallen trees can damage roads and power lines, causing traffic disruptions and power outages. Branches and objects blown by the wind can also become dangerous and cause damage to people and property.

3-2 Impact on traffic

Strong winds and bad weather caused by typhoons can affect transportation such as planes, trains and ferries. Suspensions, cancellations, delays and traffic disruptions may occur. Operations may be restricted due to safety concerns for planes and ships, especially if the wind speed is very high.

3-3 Impact on power supply

Typhoon winds can affect power lines and poles, causing power outages. If a tree or object blown by the wind comes into contact with power lines, it can cause power delivery problems. Power outages can also affect lives and business activities.

3-4 Stagnant work and its impact on the economy

Approaching or passing a typhoon may stop work and production activities. Work at construction sites and factories may be temporarily suspended in order to take appropriate measures and ensure safety. This can have impacts on local economies and impacts on livelihoods.

4. Landslide disaster landslide and collapse

Heavy rains caused by typhoons cause soil saturation and loosening, increasing the risk of landslides and collapses on steep slopes and slopes. Landslides can cause damage to buildings and infrastructure such as houses and roads. Be especially careful in areas with a high risk of sediment disasters, such as mountainous areas and near rivers.

4-1 Levee breach

Heavy rains driven by wind can cause the water levels in rivers to rise rapidly. As a result, the load on dams and dams increases, increasing the risk of their failure. Floods caused by dam breaches can cause devastating damage to coastal and riverside areas.

4-2 Impact on roads and traffic

Landslides caused by typhoons can also affect road networks. Increased rainfall can wash away sediment on roads and make them impassable. This can lead to traffic disruptions and isolated areas, increasing the difficulty of supplying supplies and evacuating.

4-3 Damage to agricultural land and the environment

Landslide disasters caused by typhoons can have a major impact on farmland and the environment. Agricultural land will be buried in earth and sand, and there is a possibility that damage will occur to crops and the livestock industry. In addition, the water quality of rivers and lakes deteriorates due to sediment runoff, which may affect ecosystems.

4-4 Danger to human life

Landslides can also pose a danger to human life. When landslides and landslides occur, residents and workers are at risk. Early warning and implementation of appropriate evacuation plans are important.

5. Impact on rail and air operations

5-1 Impact on railway operations

Suspensions/Delays: When a typhoon approaches, train operations may be restricted due to strong winds and bad weather. For safety reasons, some trains may be canceled or delayed.

5-2 Line damage

Strong winds and landslides caused by typhoons can cause damage to railway lines. For example, fallen trees, damage to power lines, and damage to tracks due to earth and sand may occur. As a result, some routes may be suspended or service sections may be shortened.

5-3 Speed ​​limit for ensuring safety

Speed ​​restrictions may be implemented if the safety of the route is compromised due to the impact of a typhoon. Safety is ensured by limiting the speed of trains according to wind speed and track conditions.

5-4 Impact on air operations

Suspension/Cancellation: When a typhoon approaches, flights may be suspended or canceled due to strong winds or bad weather. Airports and airlines may restrict operations to ensure flight safety. Delays: Typhoons can limit airport operations and change flight plans. Therefore, flight delays may occur.

5-5 Change of flight route

When a typhoon approaches, it can be difficult to predict wind direction and speed. Because of this, the aircraft may change its flight path to ensure safety. Damage to airport facilities: Strong winds and heavy rains caused by typhoons can cause damage to airport facilities. If the runway or terminal building is damaged or flooded, operations may be disrupted.

6. Power failure and communication failure

6-1 Impact on life

Strong winds and heavy rains from typhoons can topple utility poles and wires, and damage facilities, resulting in power outages. Power outages can limit the functions necessary for daily life, such as lighting, air conditioning, cooking, and information communication, in homes and offices.

6-2 Impact on traffic

Power outages can shut down traffic lights and railway traffic control systems. This can disrupt road and rail traffic and temporarily stop services.

6-3 Impact on medical care and welfare

Power outages may constrain the power supply of medical and welfare facilities such as hospitals and nursing homes. Stopping the operation of medical equipment, lighting, air conditioning, etc. may affect the provision of medical care and the lives of the elderly and disabled.

6-4 Effects of communication failure

Restricted use of mobile and landline phones: Typhoons can damage communication facilities and power poles, limiting mobile and landline communications. Calls and messages may be difficult to use.

6-5 Internet access restrictions

Internet connection may be restricted due to damage to communication facilities or lines. This may make it difficult for you to access websites and use online services.

6-6 Difficulties in communicating disaster information

Communication failures caused by typhoons may also affect the transmission of disaster information. It may become difficult to receive evacuation advisories and emergency information, making it difficult to ensure the safety of residents and respond appropriately.

7. Measures against typhoons

1. Information provided by the Japan Meteorological Agency

The Japan Meteorological Agency releases information on typhoons from time to time, and reports on the typhoon's course, strength, and areas where it is expected to affect. This will allow the general public and related organizations to prepare for the approaching typhoon.

2. Evacuation advisories and evacuation orders

The Japan Meteorological Agency and local governments may issue evacuation advisories and evacuation orders to areas where a typhoon is expected to approach or be affected. This will allow residents to evacuate to safer locations in a timely manner.

3. emergency training

The national and local governments regularly conduct disaster prevention drills to raise awareness of disaster prevention among residents and related organizations. We train people on proper behavior and evacuation procedures so that they can respond calmly and quickly in the event of a disaster.

4. Development of disaster prevention facilities

The national and local governments are developing facilities to minimize damage caused by typhoons and heavy rains, such as flood control measures for rivers, construction of embankments, and installation of flood control facilities.

5. Sediment disaster countermeasures

In areas where the risk of landslide disasters is high, we will prevent landslide disasters by carrying out construction to prevent landslides and developing seawalls. Appropriate evacuation sites and evacuation routes have also been established.

6. Earthquake resistance of buildings

In Japan, in preparation for natural disasters such as earthquakes and typhoons, earthquake resistance is being promoted based on the Building Standards Law. It ensures the strength and structural safety of buildings and reduces damage in the event of a disaster.


Appropriate Information Gathering and Warnings: Collect information on approaching typhoons and track predictions from reliable sources such as official announcements from the Japan Meteorological Agency and related organizations. It is important to understand the alert level according to the course and strength of the typhoon and take early countermeasures.